Breslau university

 

Werner Weissenberg, university of Breslau, 1930-1936
Werner Weissenberg, University of Breslau, 1930-1936

University of Breslau – colours

IMG_0130
The ribbon that can be seen across Werner’s chest in the photograph above – bearing his university colours.
The colours seem to have had a previous owner - Gerd Steinitz
Werner’s colours seem to have had a previous owner – Gerd Steinitz
Letter: Max Kaiser (student friend) to Werner: Breslau, 29th March, 1938

I think back with horror about the chess game which we had and the philosophical conversations now no longer held. Otherwise nothing has changed. Else still talks a lot, and Adolar still plays chess tournaments.

Breslau and National Socialism

In June 1933, the Jewish population of Germany was approximately 505,000 (total population: 67 million). By far the largest Jewish population lived in Berlin (about 160,000 in 1925), around 26,000 in Frankfurt, and around 20,000 lived in Breslau (source USHMM).

Over the years Werner studied at Breslau from 1930 to 1936, the situation for Jews at the university and in the city more generally (as well as across Germany) was going from bad to worse. There was violence on Breslau’s streets from 1931, with demonstrators killed and grenades thrown.

In July 1932 Hitler spoke in Breslau, drawing a crowd of around 16,000. In the elections, the National Socialists gained 43 percent of the Breslau vote – the third-highest result in Germany.

Once Adolf Hitler became Chancellor of Germany in January 1933, the Gestapo began to take action against Jews at the university and in the city; for example, a Jewish-owned department store was attacked by the Sturmabteilung (SA) – the military wing of the National Socialist party (source: Yad Vashem).

AJR Obituary
Obituary, AJR 9(8), August 1954

The first officially organised violence against Jews occurred in Breslau on 11 March 1933, when Jewish solicitors and judges were assaulted by the SA: one, Ludwig Foerder (who, according to the Breslau synagogue lists, lived at Nikolaistadtgraben 23), was beaten over the head with a lead bar; one of his colleagues, Walter Eckstein, was tortured for five days until he died (Source: Yad Vashem; see also this image of Foerder’s obituary, from the AJR).

Subsequently, Breslau’s court pronounced that only seventeen out of 364 Jewish lawyers could have access to the court in future (Richard J. Evans 2004).

In June 1933, National Socialist students at the university announced a boycott of any remaining Jewish staff. Tear gas was thrown in lectures given by Jewish academics, and Jewish students were attacked. Across the city, in fact, Jews were being attacked, tortured and imprisoned.


University life in the 1930s

Despite this violent and disturbing backdrop to university life in the 1930s, my father remained proud of having attended Breslau and made some good friends, as we know from photographs and correspondence. From his grandfathers’ jobs as innkeeper and helper on the railways, to his father’s status as a businessman, he was, as far as we know, the first in the family to make it not only to university but to such an ancient and prestigious place of learning.

Studienbuch, 12 March 1930, inside cover and page one
Letter: Max Kaiser to Werner: Breslau, 29th March, 1938

That damned quarter leaflet. 7 hrs - consisted of Radon 40 minutes, geometrics + 5 minutes theory of activities and then the rest. Definitions of the normal curves, the lecture that you once skipped, various theories, for example, K= 0 H= 0. There was a question to answer about the function and variation of computing, which was easy. Saturday was philosophy. End.

As well as clearly wearing his university colours with pride, Werner and his fellow students seem to have enjoyed student rounds of parties, dancing classes, hiking and football, as can be seen in the following photographs and extracts from letters. In addition, I can write with certainty that academic attainment meant everything to Werner. We were told that he had had to do far better than his peers and colleagues to be allowed to continue there at all.

The photographs and documents that follow provide a unique window into life at Breslau university in the 1930s: I believe I am correct in asserting that in Breslau (now Wrocław), very little survived the war by way of university documentation.


University of Breslau, 1930

A health form

University of Breslau, 30th April 1930: Mandatory medical examination of new students / ärztliche Untersuchung der Neuimmatrikulierte

 

University of Breslau

Institute for Practical Exercises                                              Breslau, 30th April 1930

Medical Examination of new enrolment of students.

The student Herr Werner Weissenberg, born 7.11.1911, has been found suitable to carry out sporting activities at today’s examination.

Remarks:

Priv. Doz. Dr von Falkenhausen Breslau 16, Hobrechtufer 4


Testimonial: summer 1930

University of Breslau, Werner Weissenberg, summer semester 1930

Dancing

Werner was a keen ballroom dancer throughout his life, while his health permitted. It was a skill he learned early, and it was clearly an important part of his life at Breslau.

Photograph: 1930/31

Party scene 1930/31
Students, 1930/31 – Werner is on the right, looking across the young woman next to him
Although soiled over time in storage, these would have been a creamy white soft leather in the 1920s and 1930s. Men wore them for dancing in order not to leave finger marks on women’s dresses when in ‘hold’ positions

Photograph: 7th February 1931

Dance students – 7th February 1931

Semester card: Winter 1930/1931

Winter semester 1930 to 1931: University of Breslau, page one
Winter semester 1930 to 1931: University of Breslau, page two

The card is signed by physics faculty member Hedwig Kohn: please follow the underlined links here (or in the menu) for more information about Breslau faculty members whose signatures appear on Werner’s documents.


University of Breslau, 1931

Semester card: Summer 1931

Semester card, summer 1931, page one
Semester card, summer 1931, page two

Testimonial: summer 1931

University of Breslau – Werner Weissenberg, summer 1931

According to the university handbook for 1930/31, sports instructor Dr Martin Hahn was part of the Akademische Ausschuß für Leibesübungen – the academic committee for physical exercises. He lived at Novastraße 3, and was a director of the sports institute. He taught courses on the methods and systems of physical exercise on Wednesdays from 8am to 9am and on Thursdays from 6pm to 7pm. He also taught methods and systems of gymnastics, with a seminar for the elderly  on Mondays from 8pm to 10pm at the physiological institute. The latter is interesting in suggesting a ‘Town and Gown’ aspect to his teaching. Martin Hahn was no longer teaching at Breslau in Werner’s final year at the university, according to the handbook for 1935/36.


A physics anecdote

Werner was a mathematician and a physicist: when my husband – a space and atmospheric physicist – first met him, they started to chat about contemporary physics. My husband later observed that even at that distance of some fifty-odd years since he last studied the subject, Werner simply went back to first principles in order to work out what was going on with current physics theory and the conversation in which he found himself. A brilliant academic and thinker himself, suffice to say that my husband was – and remained – impressed with the mind he encountered when he met Werner.

University of Breslau – physics courses, 1930s, page one
University of Breslau – physics courses, 1930s, pages two and three
University of Breslau – physics courses, 1930s, page four

Photograph: Zobten, 26 July 1931

26 July 1931
Zobten – 26 July 1931 – hiking with friends from the University of Breslau – note the colours bands and caps – the latter mostly adopted by the young women

One of the extraordinary things about extending out this project to encompass all names found in my father’s letters and documents, has been the amount of contextual detail gained about items I have seen for a long time, but knew little about. So far as I knew, these pictures taken at Zobten were simply of a group of student friends on an outing. However, having looked up some of this contextual information, on physicist Hedwig Kohn on the American Institute of Physics website, I now know that there was an annual trip made to Zobten by the physics department at Breslau. So the photograph above was probably taken on the 1931 departmental outing. One of AiP photographs shows Kohn getting off a bus at Zobten, which also solves the mystery of how they probably got there.


Practical physics courses, 1930s

Practical physics courses at the University of Breslau, 1930s, page one
Practical physics courses at the University of Breslau, 1930s, page two

Testimonial: Winter 1931/1932

University of Breslau – winter semester 1931/1932

University of Breslau, 1932

Police form: April 1932

16th April 1932 Breslau Police registration form, page one
16th April 1932 Breslau Police registration form, reverse
Letter: Max Kaiser (student friend) to Werner: Breslau, 29th March, 1938

And so for football: if you are not already aware of this, listen. Just as I prophesised, it really happened - Gto six times master has retired; that shouldn’t have happened. We had to have two men to replace him. The other nine belong to Elf, who were winners last year. You will remember that I already foresaw the decline last year, but I never dreamt that it would really happen. Yes, yes, ever since old W. died, it’s all over. I don’t know how Saarbrucken fared. I expect they were overall winners. There are going to be some good games for you to watch. I am not going to see any of them. The Vorwarts (first team) are playing in Gleiwitz; up to now I am not satisfied. The start was bad, but it can still improve. There is no way they will ever make the first league. That will be fortunate but I think they will make the second league.

Testimonial 1932

University of Breslau, Werner Weissenberg, 1932

Seminar for theoretical physics: 1932

 

Dr Fritz Reiche

University of Breslau, Werner Weissenberg, summer semester 1932, signed by Fritz Reiche

Physicist Dr Fritz Reiche had been a student of Max Planck and was a colleague of Albert Einstein. He taught physics at Breslau from 1921 to 1933, when he was dismissed under National Socialist racial laws: he was Jewish.


Semester card: summer 1932

Semester card, University of Breslau, Summer 1932 to Winter 1933, page one

Hedwig Kohn taught physics at Breslau while Werner was studying there. She was dismissed from the university in 1933 – because she was Jewish.

Semester card, University of Breslau, Summer 1932 to Winter 1933, page two

Anmeldungs buch / Bookings book

Anmeldungs buch - cover
Anmeldungs buch / applications book – cover – Werner Weissenberg
Breslau Anmeldungs book - inside cover
Breslau Anmeldungs book – inside cover
img004
Abgangsvermerk / starting note

Follow the link here for more information on Rector Hans Helfritz – the signatory above. Kölling, who is another of the signatories above, is not listed in the 1930/31 university handbook, and is only mentioned by his family name in one entry in the 1935/35 handbook. He is listed here under the title of Scientific testing office for higher education. He is Chairman and school inspector.

img005
Summer 1930

The signatures above include those of Alexander Weinstein (mathematics), Ferencz Jüttner (physics), Clemens Schaefer (physics), Guido Hoheisel (mathematics) and Günther Schulemann (philosophy).

Anmeldungs Buch, Summer 1930 - accounts
Anmeldungs Buch, Summer 1930 – accounts
img009
Winter 1930/31

As well as names I have linked to for more information above, one of the signatures here is that of head of the sports institute, Bruno Saurbier.

img010
Winter 1930/31 continued
Summer 1931
Summer 1931

Follow the underlined link for more information on one of the signatories given here – Fritz Arndt (chemistry).

Summer 1931 - accounts
Summer 1931 – accounts

How extraordinary – to have been taught by mathematician Johann Radon.

img013
Winter 1931/32

The top signature above is that of mathematician Hans Rademacher.

img014
Winter 1931/32, continued
img015
Summer 1932

Another new faculty member name here is that of mathematician Wolfgang Sternberg. He was forced to leave Breslau in 1935.

img016
Summer 1932, continued
Breslau, Winter term 1932/33
Breslau, Winter term 1932/33

Another faculty member given here is Hermann Senftleben (a physicist).

img018
Winter 1932/33

The only new faculty name I can work out here is that of philosopher Siegfried Marck. A native of Breslau, being Jewish, Marck lost his post here in the early 1930s.

img020
Summer 1933, accounts
img021
The last two pages are blank

Semester card: winter 1932 to 1933

Semester card, University of Breslau, Winter 1932 to Winter 1933, page one
Semester card, University of Breslau, Winter 1932 to Winter 1933, page two

University of Breslau, 1933

Mathematics and physics seminar: 16 February 1933

University of Breslau, 16th February 1933

Certificate: 28th February 1933

University of Breslau, 28th February 1933, signed Heinrich Biltz

Insurance certificate

img419
Savings bank of Breslau 

University of Breslau, 25th November 1933, page one
University of Breslau, 25th November 1933, pages two and three
University of Breslau, 25th November 1933, page four
University of Breslau, 2nd December 1933

 University of Breslau, 1934

Studienbuch, University of Breslau, cover, 11 May 1934
Studienbuch, University of Breslau, cover, 11 May 1934

Assessment: 30th July 1934, signed by Schaefer

 

University of Breslau, 30th July 1934, Werner Weissenberg, page 1, signed by Schaefer.

It is also interesting to note on the form above the name of Werner’s landlord – Wiener. I’m still hoping that at some point I will find out his first name.

University of Breslau, 30th July 1934, Werner Weissenberg, page 2, signed by Schaefer

Assessment: 31st July 1934, signed by Erich Rothe

University of Breslau, 31 July 1934, page two

University of Breslau, 1935

University of Breslau, mathematics seminar, 5th February 1935
Physics seminar, University of Breslau, 11 February 1935
University of Breslau, seminar certificate, philosophy seminar, 11 February 1935
Seminar for theoretical physics, University of Breslau, thermodynamics and statistics, 14 February 1935
Examination certificate, University of Breslau, 16th February 1935, page one
Examination certificate, University of Breslau, 16th February 1935, page two

The signatory on the form above is Karl Seiler.

Examination certificate, University of Breslau, 20th February 1935, page one

Ludolf Malten’s signature is at the bottom of the form above, just under that of Rudolf Suhrmann.

Examination certificate, University of Breslau, 20th February 1935, page two

Certificate/Record: 29th May 1936

29_05_1936_zeugnis_001-2

29_05_1936_zeugnis_002

Record

Regarding the scientific assessment for the teaching degree for higher schools

Mr Werner Weissenberg, born 7th November 1911 in Pless O/S., of Jewish religion, passed his A-levels at the Gymnasium in Beuthen O/S on March 12th 1930 and studied Mathematics and Natural Sciences from Easter 1930 until Michaelmas 1933 and from Easter 1934 until Michaelmas 1935 in Breslau.

In the summer terms 1933 and 1935 he was granted leave.

In the winter term 1933/34 he was a visiting student at the university of Breslau.

Given the notice from 20th May 1935 according to the ministerial accord from 7.12.1933, and being eligible for the examination for teaching in higher schools, he received the following exercises for written examination:

  1. Theory of the spatial problem of Lagrange (without side conditions) with two variable end points
  2. Contributions to the explanation of Schaefer Bergmann’schen interference experiments

He passed the oral examination on the 27th, 28th and 29th May 1936.

Herr Werner Weissenberg passed the exam for teaching in higher schools.

He received in Mathematics, his major, grade ‘Good’

W.Nr. 756.

EVIIa 564 38

In Physics, his second major, he received the grade ‘sufficient’ and in his minor course Chemistry, grade ‘Good’.

Given his performance in the written and oral examination the grade

Well passed

Is awarded to him

Breslau, 29th May 1936

Ministry for scientific examination

Kölling for Baur, Radon, Fues, Schaefer, Dittrich

I believe that Dittrich here refers to Dr Otto Dittrich, who is the only Dittrich listed in the university handbook for the 1936/36 academic year. He is a medical doctor teaching in dermatology and venerology, who lived on Kaiser Wilhelm Straße. This is all I have been able to find out about him to date.


Letter: 30th May 1936

Original German letter is here

Tost, 30th May 1936

Dear Werner,

Hurrah! I just found your lovely letter in the box. Thank God you have survived it and done so well. I am happy and congratulate you from the bottom of my heart. I prayed in the Temple on both days, in spite of the fact that I didn’t know you were having such a strenuous time. It really worked out so well for you. There was only one sentence in your last card that made me think this was what will be, will be. It will be weakened by the reference to the month of June. After the event I am still agitated, so much so that my hands are trembling. If dear God has helped up till now then he will carry on helping you. Now you can sleep during the Whitsun holidays and carry on relaxing when you get home. I am anxious to know details, of course. As for the goods you can’t get into your suitcases – get a large box and send it by train. That will be the cheapest method of transport.

Now hearty congratulations,

From your Mother

Heartiest congratulations from me also, and I am glad that at last you have got it over with. In spite of my retirement I was nevertheless worried. You can tell us all the details when you get home. Your winter sweater, you can place into the box, that way you will have less to carry. A healthy au revoir.

Lots of love, Father

Dear Werner,

Many congratulations from me too. With God’s help you have got through. I hope you will find some employment soon with a good salary. Do you not want to say goodbye to Uncle Martin? He would be very pleased with a visit from you. He will have written to you. Margot is celebrating her 21st birthday with Heinz. Looking forward to seeing you.

Lots of love, Grandmother

You will have written, hopefully, to the aunts and Uncle Kurt. You will have to pay a farewell visit by Saturday 6th, won’t you? I tried to recover my strength as a 45-year old, but in vain, unfortunately. Did you like the lady? Grandmother would like you to visit Uncle Martin Bloch, on Gartenstrasse, because he is very fond of you and very kind to us.

Greetings, from Mother

(Translation by Helga Brown BA Dip. Ed. née Steinhardt)


Certificate: 29 May 1936

1936_05_29_certificate_Breslau
29 May 1936, Certificate, University of Breslau

Certificate: 29 May 1936

29th May 1936
29th May 1936

Statement under Oath: extract

German original and full English translation – here

If the political circumstances in Germany had stayed the same, according to a Professor at the University of Breslau, after an extra term I would have obtained a doctorate, which would, of course, have been very beneficial towards my professional prospects past and present.